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    Table of Contents

    2   The London Underground diagram John A Walker 
    The author analyses the diagrammatic conventions of Henry Beck's famous two-dimensional graphic represent­ ation of the London Underground railway system, arguing that it is a masterpiece of twentieth-century graphic art that has been accorded insufficient recognition by the art establishment.
    5 Symbols for deafness
    We show the first-prize winning design and two runners-up in a recent competition for the design of a symbol for the deaf and hard-of­ hearing.
    6 Symbols for tourist guides and maps 
    We publish a set of symbols prepared by the British Tourist Authority for use by the publishers of maps and guide books, providing information for tourists.
    Blissymbols for the disabled—a manner of speaking Jack Anson Finke
    The author describes the remarkable success of Charles Bliss' Semanto­ graphy among patients of the Ontario Crippled Children's Center, Canada.
    14   Pattern design and literacy Jorge Frascara
    The author describes a joint project being developed by the Departments of Art and Design and Psychology in the University of Alberta, aiming to design an improved alphabet that might help retarded children to more readily identify letterforms.
    16  Japanese match box graphics
    We show a selection of late nine­ teenth century Japanese match box cover designs.
    Type research at the London College of Printing 
    We show a selection of foreign type­ faces developed by staff and post­ graduate students within the research unit of the London College of Printing.
    Tell us what's wrong in pictures­—a medical phrase book
      We show sample spreads from an experimental pictorial phrase book developed by the Health Education Council of Great Britain, designed to help medical staff when dealing with non-English speaking patients.
    23 Computer and laser technology speed up Chinese printing
      A brief account of how the Mono­ type Corporation's new laser-printing methods will revolutionise the production of Chinese printing.
    23 New ways to view world problems
      The East-West Open Grants division, Hawaii, recently invited five visual communicators from the USA, Japan, India and Iran to become research fellows and work as a team.

    Their brief was to explore ways in which visual communication could be employed to provide essential information to people worldwide. We show some slides from an audio-visual presentation which they produced on 'Ways of visualising global interdependencies.

    32 Signs of hope-good news for Bombay outpatients Stephen Raw
    The author examines a recent proposal for labelling drugs for a Bombay hospital outpatients depart­ment. The solution employs a well-founded graphic system using symbols but without overlooking the very particular locality in which it is to work.
    34 Pictorial prescription labels Jeremy Bratt
      The author describes some experi­ mental work aimed at replacing existing hand-written labels on ophthalmic medicine containers by printed labels, using graphic imagery to communicate the correct dosage and any cautionary information to illiterate outpatients at a London hospital. The intention is to reduce the number of errors made by illiterate outpatients in following their prescriptions.
    38 Design students project-graphic symbols for public information
      We show some of the results from the recent Icograda design students project-Graphic Symbols for Public Information, in which design students from many countries were asked to work on the design and development of test symbols.

    We show sample spreads from an experimental pictorial phrase book developed by the Health Education Council of Great Britain, designed to help medical staff when dealing with non-English speaking patients.

    45 Signing system for a maternity hospital in Buenos Aires
      A brief account of how the Mono­type Corporation's new laser-printing methods will revolutionise the production of Chinese printing.
    47 First steps on a thousand mile journey—part 4 Patrick Wallis Burke
    The author, in his concluding article, examines the layman's widely held opinion that Chinese is a particularly difficult written language to learn. He suggest that the difficulties may be exaggerated, since each character exhibits, not only strong formal properties but also shows its etymological origins rather more vividly than do alphabetic words. Form can be powerfully augmented by content to make each character a well-known friend.


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    2   Children's picture preferences- a comparative study C J Ladan and J Frascara 
    The authors describe a cross-cultural study of children's picture preferences. Children were shown specially prepared pictures of a pair of giraffes, each painted in a different manner. In one picture, for example, the animals were represented naturalistically, in another they were stylised. The complexity of the background was also varied, as were the outlines ot the figures, these being varied from hard-edged to soft-edged.
    The authors' expectation was that age, sex, and geographic region would influence children's preferences along three dimensions, which they termed 'edge,' 'form' and 'simplicity-complexity.'
    The study described involved Canadian schoolchildren of both sexes, between the ages of 7-11, and these results were compared with an earlier study of Argentinian boys and girls within the same age range.
    The authors find that, in general, children of both cultures typically prefer natural images incorporating detail and with a good analysis of contours, although some age/sex exceptions are noted.
    5 Fog signals-experimental illuminated signs for Britain
    We show a group of traffic signs to be tested experimentally on British roads during the next few months. They have been specifically developed as fog hazard warnings. Using computer-type dots, any one of these 12 signs can be flashed on to an illuminated panel, which also has flashing warning lights at each corner.
    6 Otl Aicher's sign posters 
    Readers of our last issue wilI remember that we featured Otl Aicher's ingenious 'off-the-peg' graphic signing system. These four delightful posters, which subtly announce the attractions of lsny and Argenbuehl in the Algau region of Austria, are from the same design office.
    As a series they echo the style that was created for the sign 'alphabet.' Indeed, many of the individual elements have been taken from the signing system, either directly, or in some modified form. As a reminder, here are some of the signs that figure in these particular posters.
    A new development in data entry
    The article briefly describes the general principles of a newly developed Data Entry machine. This device is capable of recognising ordinary print in any typestyle, combinations font, and a wide range of sizes. This information it can then convert to computer code, either on disc, tape, or teletype compatible interface.
    9   Button-down-graphics­ the signing for the World Cup '78
    The article describes and illustrates the signing system developed by Gui Bonsiepe and Carlos A Mendez-Mosquera for the latest World Cup football competition held in Argentina recently. It uses an ingenious system of plastic buttons that can be positioned upon perforated metal plates, so as to generate the various required
    signs. The system is modular and was produced in a range of four different sizes.
    14  First steps on a thousand mile journey-part 3 Patrick Wallis Burke
    The author continues his analysis of the fundamental differences between ideogrammatic and alphabetic writing. He describes some of the problems that have occurred over various attempts to write Chinese in Latin characters.
    He shows how the Chinese writing system manages to solve the phonetic problems that occur when rendering foreign words of various kinds, and includes some examples of modern technical terms in their Chinese forms. He concludes with some examples of 'concrete' poetry that make use of Chinese characters.
    22  A printer's alphabet
      The letterforms of the Latin alphabet seem to have fascinated artists and designers throughout the many centuries since it was invented. We show here a recent 'Printers Alphabet', invented by the Dutch artist, Pam Rueter, which should delight all publishers, printers and typographers. The letters, which are wood engravings, will shortly appear in book form, published by the Gaillarde Press of Zutphen, in the Netherlands.
    24 An architect's alphabet
      Whilst on the same subject, here are two letter designs from the extra­ ordinary 'Architectural Alphabet' of Johann David Steingruber (1702-87), who was born in Ansbach in Bavaria and was a leading architect of his time. During his working life Steingruber designed some 250 houses and 50 churches, most of which are still standing.
    26 Theme and variations­ giving visual identity to a school of music Keith Murgatroyd
    The author briefly describes and illustrates his work as design consultant to the Royal Nrirthern College of Music, Manchester, England. This would seem to be a very rare example of an enlightened educational establishment which, although primarily concerned with sound, was also determined to give itself a strong visual identity.
    28 Re-thinking research into visual communication Jocelyn Chapman
    The author is sceptical about much of current research into visual communication. She points out that although an immense amount of research has been carried out, no general principles of any kind have emerged that might aid designers to improve their performance.
    Most research, she argues, concerns itself only with those factors which can be measured. After Iisting the various approaches that can be taken to research, she goes on to suggest that the task of finding out what people really feel about particular items of communication requires methods of research that include a genuine understanding of the people concerned.
    All too often, present-day methods are simply aimed at getting useful feedback so that the producers can do a better job. The emphasis is not on the person looking.
    He or she is merely a 'subject' in an experiment. Researchers do not usually care about them or respect their personal opinions. As a result, the wisdom of ordinary people is left untapped because we insist on using 'experts.'
    As she remarks, "when you know and respect someone you cannot treat them as a 'subject.'
    The questions you are asking them from your book seem suddenly absurd. The new methods must include empathy, respect and caring for and understanding the whole person."
    32 Correspondance


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    2   Cyrillic Gothic: formal modifications to the design of a Russian typeface Andre Gurtler and Christian Mengelt 
    The authors describe some of the problems involved in designing a new four-weight, sans-serif Cyrillic type­ face. Their text and its illustrations, show how individual characters were modified so as to giv,I! an overall consistency to their proposed alphabet.
    5 Signing system for an Argentinian new town
    The article describes and illustrates a signing system developed for a new Argentinian town.
    The scheme, besides attempting to provide a rational visual communi­ cation system for this particular housing complex, was also designed to serve as a possible model for other developments of this kind throughout Argentina. The scheme makes extensive use of pictographic signs. Many were developed to serve as a means of identifying the various facilities offered by the housing complex-schools, shopping centres, supermarkets, cinemas, etc.
    In addition, each of the sections, streets, patios or plazas, were given identifying names which could be portrayed pictorially.
    9 The language of colour Tom Porter and Byron Mikellides
    The authors argue that colour is a language that, to some extent, modern man seems to have forgotten. As a result, the way in which we use colour in our everyday world is almost completely arbitrary, since we have lost the ability to manipulate either the biological or symbolic languages of colour.
    They instance much interesting research into the effects of colour on human performance and motivation, and they point to a wide discrepancy between popular colour preferences and those of the 'sophisticated' archi­ tect and designer.
    They believe that designers need to learn far more about colour and that this, in turn, might prompt a far more adventurous use of colour in our present-day environment.
    11  lsotype in the USA
    We publish a further selection of pictographic symbols produced in America by Pictorial Statistics Inc, under the direction of the late Rudolf Modley. They date from the middle of the 1930s to the beginning of the 1940s.
    They already display a certain amount of period charm, but we are happy to include them as a further tribute to the work of a man who was for many years a leading spokesman and critic of pictorial signing.
    16   Speculative international signing system from Yugoslavia
    By far the most controversial work in signing systems in recent years is that of the Yugoslavian architect Radomir Vukovic. This work appeared in a publication issued by the Union of Engineers and Technicians of Yugoslavia, entitled 'New aspects of informing.'
    It was produced in response to this organization's belief that there was no adequate visual communication system for users of the various transport and traffic systems.
    18  Pictograms with a Japanese accent
    Two sets of pictographic signs, both developed in Japan at different periods, demonstrate similar approaches to current international signing. Yet, in spite of similar pictorial content, they remain identifiably Japanese.
    And they prompt the question; 'Does picture language have its own regional dialects?'
    A sign alphabet from Otl Aicher 
    The article describes and illustrates a new range of signs developed by Otl Aicher for the firm of ERCO. In this massive undertaking an attempt has been made to provide a wide range of pictographic signs for many kinds of organizations-schools, exhibitions, building sites, airports, etc. The system is modular and caters for both illuminated and unilluminated signs, in three basic sizes and with variations of fixing.
    28 Pictograms with a French accent Ian Mclaren and Claude Braunstein
      The authors, who have worked together for a number of years, show some of the unified sets of symbols they have evolved for use in cartography and on underground rail signing.
    30 Design and semiotics: some aspects concerning the design process Hanno HJ Ehses
      The author argues that only when the designer is willing to accept that the process which begins with design can be analysed by exposing the nature of its structure, only then can he begin tc- exert a certain amount of control upon the effect of his product and to use it as a precise medium for the presentation of visual information.
    32 Tailpiece—danger signs for Europe Patrick Wallis Burke
    The author briefly discusses the Hazchem scheme, a recently intro­ duced system for the labelling of potentially dangerous chemicals that are transported by road. He is sceptical about the standard of the pictographic signing used, which gives little hint as to the real dangers of such products.


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    Divergent and convergent tendencies of the Latin and Cyrillic (Russian) alphabet Albert Kapr 
    The author thinks it likely that there will be a gradual, step-by-step development of a phonetic system of writing which will encompass ever more languages.
    He traces the joint ancestry of both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets and the debt that both owe to the early Greek alphabet.
    9 Probing pictures for a lingua franca J B Deregowski
      The author, a lecturer in psychology, discusses the commonly held notion that pictures might provide a lingua franca, free of all cultural and ethnic boundaries and equally comprehensible to all men. He suggests that such an idea is erroneous and that evidence from travellers, anthropologists and psychologists contradicts the layman's view. It would seem that members of many cultural groups find interpret· ation of pictures difficult.
    10 Posters for Peace by Israeli design students Yarom Vardimon
    The author briefly describes a poster project which he initiated at the Bezalel Academy in Jerusalem for final year graphic design students, on the theme "Israel wants Peace."
    He shows a selection of the work which they produced and each student contributes an explanatory note concerning the thinking that led to the solutions they offered to this difficult communication problem.
    First steps on a thousand mile journey—part 2 Patrick Wallis Burke
    Many layman think that the Chinese write in pictures and that their writing system is unphonetic.
    In his second article, the author explains how the Chinese phonetic system works and goes on to describe the special characters known as 'specifiers' or 'radicals.'
    He gives some examples of ways in which the radicals can bt: combined to give new meanings, and uses them to demonstrate how metaphors for human experience seem to have a universal quality.
    22   The indaequacies of the Roman alphabet and proposed phonetic alphabet with concept-related phonograms Anthony J Rozak 
    The author describes a phonetic alphabet that he has designed, and the various factors that he took into account when devising it.
    Like Bernard Shaw, he believes that only by abandoning the Roman alphabet can one devise a sensible working tool for rendering the sound patterns of English and other languages. His 40 character alphabet provides cues for learners to concept­ ualise the varying functions of the individual letters. These he bases upon our present understanding of human speech production. He believes that his system is faster to write, compara­ tively easy to learn, and capable of better word-pattern recognition than the Roman alphabet. His ideas make a useful addition to the debate concern­ ing the improvement of English orthography.
    Book review Peter Kneebone
    Handbook of Pictorial Symbols: 3,250 examples from international sources
    Rudolf Modley (with the assistance of William R Myers)
    Comenius and visual education Jan Rajlich
    The author contributes a short article concerning the life and work of the remarkable 17th century Czech teacher, philosopher and cleric, Jan Amos Komensky, or Comenius, as he was known in Latin.
    He was an undoubted pioneer in the field of pictorial education and many of his ideas about the processes of education still seem radical more than three hundred years after his death.


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    Table of Contents

    The significance of lsotype Michael Twyman
    The author discusses the pioneer work of Otto Neurath and his lsotype team. Neurath saw the need to establish conventions for picture language in order to make communi­ cation easier and more effective. Obviously, the major influence of the lsotype movement is seen most clearly in the field of graphic statistics but they also offered some important lessons in the way they approached communication problems.
    10 lsotype in the USA
    As a brief supplement to Michael Twyman's article, we show some of the symbols designed in the United States by Pictorial Statistics (an American offshoot of the lsotype movement) in the 1930s.
    11 Traveller's symbols Thomas R Hofmann
    The author outlines the history of the Institute of Design at Illinois Institute of Technology, from its founding in 1937 under Moholy-Nagy up to the present time. He reassesses the original Bauhaus approach to design and describes the many changes in emphasis that have taken place at the Institute. He also contends that, in spite of these necessary changes, the Institute of Design still represents a thriving, legitimate offspring of the original Bauhaus founded 56 years earlier.
    Bauhaus and grandson of Bauhaus Robert A Manning
    The author believes that opportunities are being lost for a more painless introduction of international symbols for the traveller. He discusses why he thinks that graphic symbols should not be allowed to stand mute without some form of explanation as to their meaning.
    14   Towards a more consistent English spelling JJ Dames 
    The author, a Dutchman who has spent most of his life in Africa, discusses the problems of English spelling. He provides a timely reminder that the problems of English orthography should no longer be the sole concern of those who speak it as their mother tongue. Because of its primacy as a second world language, millions of people from all cultures are vitally interested in how its spelling might be reformed.
    Towards a new alphabet Mohan S Kala
    Everyone is agreed on the need for a new set of alphabetic symbols that are both man and machine amenable. The author, who has been doing research in alphanumerics and metro­ logy, claims that his Fondijyal system fulfils both requirements.
    The age of the symbol manipulating sensory cripple Peter Bartl
      The author presents some arguments for an education that gives as much attention to a child's visual sensory development as it currently gives to reading and writing.
    RTA—The Transit Network Dick Feigler
    First steps on a thousand mile journey—part1 Patrick Wallis Burke
    My own contribution is the first part of a longer article designed to give some descriptions of the Chinese writing system. My hope is to show that the Chinese written language offers the graphic designer some important insights into the nature of pictorial communication, and also forces one to consider the gains and losses of alphabetic writing.
    Design education and standardization Ernest Hoch
    The author argues that for the student designer an understanding of the nature of standardization is vital. Standardization, far from being a break upon creativity, is a necessary prerequisite for any student who wishes to act responsibly as a designer. The concept of standardization touches upon the fundamental question of the relationship between freedom and restriction upon it, between creativity and a framework
    of constraints.
    Problem solving in the man-made environment Michael McCoy
    The author describes an environ­ mental Education Project undertaken by graduates and staff of Cranbrook Academy, USA. The project involved the design and development of a curriculum and supporting teaching aids, on the theme The man-made environment. It is intended for use in the grades 6-9 in the state education system.


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    Edugraphology—the myths of design and the design of myths Victor Papanek  
    Design philosophy and the designer's self-image have been victim to a series of shocks. Some twenty years ago designers saw themselves primarily as artists, able to close the gap between technology and market­ ing through their concern with form, function, colour, texture, harmony and proportion. For an industrial designer or architect, a further concern was with cost, convenience and "taste." Within ten years the designer's role had broadened into a systems approach, showing greater interest in production, distribution, market-testing and sales. This opened the door to team-design, although with the team largely made up of the technocrats, sales specialists and modish "persuaders."
    The myth of the 26 letter Roman alphabet Patrick Wallis Burke  
    The alphabet is the last, the most highly developed, the most convenient and the most easily adaptable system of writing. Alphabetic writing is now universally employed by civilized peoples; its use is acquired in childhood with ease. There is an enormous advantage, obviously, in the use of letters which represent single sounds rather than ideas or syllables. No sinologist knows all the 80,000 or so Chinese symbols, but it is also far from easy to master the 9,000 or so symbols actually employed by Chinese scholars. How far easier it is to use the 22 or 24 or 26 signs only! —David Diringer, The alphabet
    Kingsley Read—a pioneer of an English phonetic alphabet Patrick Wallis Burke
    Whilst this issue of icographic was being prepared, my dear friend Kingsley Read died.
    For almost a year now, he and I had worked on the refining of his last project-Sound-Spell, which is described on pages 10-13. When I looked through the many letters that had passed between us, and thought of the many times that we had spoken on the telephone, it seemed almost impossible that our association lasted only one year. It will always feel as though he occupied a much larger part of my life.
    My family, and many of my friends, through seeing the work we were doing, talked as though they knew him too. —Patrick Wallis Burke
    The Sound-Spell, an alphabet and a policy
    Kingsley Read 
    Educationists uninterested in reforming English spelling are show­ ing interest in the use of 'initial teaching media' which enable children sooner to read fluently, not only in spelling more often true to speech, but sooner and better in normal orthodox spelling. The first and best attested of such media is i.t.a., the Initial Teaching Alphabet.
    14  Soundspel—an American approach to a phonetic alphabet
    In view of the fact that we are publishing the first announcement of the late Kingsley Read's 'Sound=Spell,' it was thought that readers might like the chance to compare it with an American approach to the same problem. In spite of their similar names, the two systems represent radically different solutions.
    15  World language without words Rudolf Modley
      An historian and designer of graphic symbols attempts to bring some order out of the chaos of our varied systems of communication through symbols.
    20  Two approaches to book cover design Helmut Schmid
    The 'paperback' symbolizes the Instant accessibility of our traditional Western literary culture. It is cheap, compact, standardized and expendable, not an exhibition piece for the bookshelf.
    22 The book in a TV-age Erik Ellegard Frederiksen 
    The book is no longer what it used to be.
    This is not the grumble of some Jeremiah dolefully finding new proof of degeneration, but an admission that the book will change more and more because man's conditions and situation have altered. Originally, books were intended for the educated few prepared for slow, careful reading.
    23 Note to contributors


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    One writing for one world­—the pioneer work of C K Bliss Patrick Wallis Burke  
    Experiments conducted by teachers have shown that children grasp these pictorial Blissymbols quicker than words. They can read new combinations they have never seen before, and they can boldly and logically combine new meanings they need when writing to penfriends who speak other languages.
    TypoAsia 74 Sato Keinosuke  
    The majority of participating countries use Indian type letters. Syllables are formed by adding vowel signs over, under, or on both sides of the consonant. If typefaces are constructed with the vowel signs integral with the character, the number of pieces becomes extremely large. Consequently, the vowel signs are cast separately from the consonants, as additional characters. There are a great many, and they are very small, so that it takes a lot of time to set type. They are also easy to damage or lose. For syllables that are used very frequently, the vowel signs are made integral with the character. As a result, there is a real need for studies of frequency of syllables to be undertaken.
    'Stamp on it'—some aspects of postage stamp design Stuart Rose
    The author, who is Design Advisor to the British Post Office, gives a short historical survey of British postage stamp design, from the first ever stamp (the Penny Black of 1840), to the present day. He then goes on to discuss the various difficulties that accompany the design of the many commemorative issues that are now produced in Britain.
    12   Easier than ABC-some experiments with a 'plastic' language Peter Watson   
    Today Charlie W is a star pupil. A year ago he was a mental write-off to many people. He had an IQ of only 15 then (the average is 100), and the chances of him ever being able to look after himself or do any of the ordinary things which children enjoy seemed completely beyond him.
    13  Communication in an environment and by an environment Peter Kneebone
    When we speak of corporate identity we are probably thinking of systems of products, services, events, and so on, and the way in which they are identified and communicate coherently with us, either as users or as potential users. A corporate identity, in this sense, is something which is designed (perhaps for the first time, or perhaps revised and recreated more than once) to identify, coordinate and express the special character of the system in all its manifestations-both to its consumers and to those who operate it. To make me feel good about buying it, or feel good about working for it. To make me recognise it instantly. To make me want it. To tell me how to use it. To rationalise its functioning. Also to make it more profitable.
    15  The roots of the problem Hartford Thomas
    If you are looking for moral stories about the way we live now you can hardly do better than consider the present state of the paper industry.
    16  Note to contributors
    16 Six thousand years of writing René Ponot 
    The general public is surprised and impressed to learn that many people wrote "in the past" on a wide variety of materials. Doesn't this happen nowadays and in many extraordinary ways? The man in the street can have few preconceived ideas about it. Does the mother who dishes out a ladle-full of soup containing dozens of letters of the alphabet, ask herself whether the pasta is a material for writing?
    23 How to design in Chinese (without really being able to read it) Henry Steiner
      The designs shown in this article were done by me during the past few years, employing Chinese characters.


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    Type in our environment Armin Hofmann  
    This short article is taken from the introductory remarks to an illustrated Tecture given by Armin Hofmann at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms' held in Copenhagen. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful to them for their permission to publish this extract.
    A proposition for education in letterforms and handwriting Wim Crouwel  
    The text of Wim Crouwel's article is taken from a paper given at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms', held in Copenhagen during August 1973. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful for their permission to publish it in this issue.
    Investigation into colour preferences Tom Porter 
    Swiss posters for Amnesty International    
    In July 1973, the Associ­ation of Swiss Graphic Designers (Association Suisse des Graphistes ASG) sent a letter to all its members, associates and students, asking them to take part in a poster design project for Amnesty International. The subject chosen was: "How the graphic designer sees the problem of the torture of political prisoners…»
    A jury representing the ASG and Amnesty International has chosen one of the submitted designs for use as an official poster. The posters were exhibited recently. None was given pride of place nor was any order of merit indicated. The sole aim of the exhibi­tion was to show the many differing interpretations of the theme. It showed also the deep concern of Swiss graphic designers over the use of torture. 
    Shown here are 30 of the 75 posters which were exhibited. The numbers are intended only as a means of identifying the designers. They do not indicate any order of merit..
    Sound-writing Kingsley Read
    George Bernard Shaw died convinced that a new English alphabet was needed to enable people to write and read the language more efficiently. He left funds for that purpose, and the evolution of the new alphabet, known as the 'Shaw Alphabet', is related here by its designer Kingsley Read.
    12  Concerning Signposting Paul Mijksenaar and Gerard Unger 
    Paul Mijksenaar originally trained as an industrial designer. Since then he has worked in both industrial design and graphic design. He is Chairman of the Applied Art section of the Arts Council of Amsterdam. He is also a member of the Dutch Commission NEC 3C (signs for apparatus) and of ISO/TC 145 which is concerned with the international standardization of graphic symbols. 
    Gerard Unger trained as a graphic designer. Following work for a number of organizations he set up a free-lance practice in 1970. In collaboration with Joh. Enschede and Sons he designed the typeface 'Markeur' for engraving on plastics and metal plates, together with a signing system. 
    In 1972 Paul Mijksenaar and Gerard Unger went into partnership, forming a design consultancy called Sign Design specialising in the problems of signing and situated in Amsterdam.
    15  Signposting and Communication Media Paul Mijksenaar and Gerard Unger
    Typographical training for technicians and technical training for typographers Adrian Frutiger 
    The text of Adrian Frutiger's article is taken from a paper given at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms', held in Copenhagen during August 1973. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful for their permission to publish it in this issue.
    23 Note to Contributors
    24 Appendix to sound-writing


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    The working man's philosophy of art Sydney Lewis 
    Sydney Lewis has headed his own design and printing firm for ten years. He has just completed a sabbatical year of study at London· University reading Philosophy of Symbolic Form. He is currently a vice-president of the International Council of Graphic Design Associations
    Some aspects of design from the perspective of a woman designer Sheila Levrant de Bretteville  
    Sheila Levrant de Bretteville is a young American woman designer who currently runs an architectural and design practice with her husband in Los Angeles. She is a graphic designer, teacher, critic, and mother to a three year old boy called Jason.
    The Women’s Design Program California Institute of the Arts 
    As she indicated in her article, Sheila de Bretteville has been connected with the Women's Design Program at the California Institute of the Arts. Because the work of this program seems to demonstrate an important attempt to embody feminist principles into a course of study, we publish a selection of work by some of its students.
    12   Alphanumeric symbols for mosaic printers and display tubes J M Dirken, H van Campenhout, W Crouwel, J L de Kroes et al   
    Bruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers.
    LoCoS-an experimental pictorial language  Yukio Ota
    Yukio Ota is a Japanese graphic designer who has spent a number of years in developing an experimental pictorial language. In this short article he explains the general principles upon which it operates.
    20  Legibility research-the ergonomics of print  Jeremy J Foster
    Jeremy J Foster is a lecturer in psychology and editor of Legibility Research Abstracts. As a research fellow at the Manchester Polytechnic he conducted a programme of research into the legibility of print.
    24  Note to contributors


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    2   Foreword Edward Wegman
    Edward Wegman is Head of Unesco's International Book Year Unit and we are grateful to him for providing this foreword to our fifth issue.
    Books and barbarity John Olford 
    John Offord is a writer and philosopher, currently teaching in the Liberal Studies Department of a Design School in London.
    The role of the book designer Peter Kneebone and Germano Facetti 
    Peter Kneebone is one of the founder members of lcograda and is currently Chairman of its Signs and Symbols Commission. Germano Facetti is a graphic designer with an international reputation, probably best known for his work for Penguin Books.
    5   Visual aids Bruce Robertson and Robert Chapman  
    Bruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers.
    Some tasks for future book design Albert Kapr
    Professor Albert Kapr is Principal of the Hochschule fur Grafik und Buchkunst in Leipzig.
    The book in a changing cultural climate Patrick Wallis Burke
    Patrick Wallis Burke, Executive Editor of this journal, is also Principal Lecturer in Graphic Design to the School of Graphic Design, Ravensbourne, a Diploma College near London.
    The essential book Edward Wright
    Edward Wright is Head of the Graphics Department at Chelsea School of Art. He is a member of the SIAD/STD Typographer's Computer Working Group.
    The changing responsi­bilities of the typographic designer G W Ovink 
    G W Ovink is art consultant for Tetterode-Nederland and extra­ordinary professor at the University of Amsterdam in history and aesthetics of the art of printing and allied trades. Dr Ovink is also a board member of the Association Typographique Internationale.
    18  Designing the International Book Year symbol  
    Michel Olyff is a consultant designer to a wide variety of industrial concerns. He is a member of the Board of the Chambre des Graphistes (CBG) and Union Professionelle des Industrial Designers (UID) as well as a member of AGI. 
    22  Book Review


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    Table of Contents

    Creativity: a teachable skill? T F Warren
      T F Warren, an American psychologist, is currently a member of the Faculty of the University of Wisconsin, where he is engaged in teaching and research.
    Visual communication in East Africa Walter Plata 
      Walter Plata lectures in the Depart· ment of Design, University of Nairobi, Kenya. He was educated and trained in Germany, where he started designing visual communication in 1950. In 1961 he began teaching as assistant professor of graphic design at Rhode Island School of Design and has since been both a designer and teacher in many countries 
    National Institute of Design, Paldi, Ahmedabad, India Walter Plata 
    Below, one of the projects undertaken by the Institute, the design of a Devanagari script suitable for mechan­ised printing. Devanagari script is used by the 237 million Hindi speaking people of India. Many of the other scripts used by the various linguistic groups in India are derived from Devanagari. Within the context of a national programme for mass education and improved communi­cation, the development of a Deva­nagari script suitable for mechanised printing, such as typewriting, type­casting and photocomposition, was vitally important. The consultant for this project was Adrian Frutiger.
    An American view of British graphic design education Al Gowan 
    Al Gowan is head of Graphic Design at Boston University, USA, and edits Designcourse, an international quarterly. He operates a freelance design office in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
    Relating teaching to what is known about learning David Warren Piper  
      David Warren Piper is an educational psychologist with considerable experience of teaching in design and architectural schools. He is currently working at the University Teaching Methods Unit of the University of London Institute of Education.
    Learning at home for pre-school children
    345 Limited is a company specializing in the production and marketing of aids to pre-school education. Their products are aimed at helping parents to guide their children's development, through play at home. They have developed materials for three main areas, prereading activities, number sense and speech development. A series of books includes picture stories, rhymes, puzzles, tear-out games and gramophone records.
    15  The 'finger exercises' of Jurriaan Schrofer
    with acknowledgements to the artist and to the publishers of the Dutch magazine Graficus Revue.
    Designing books that present a visual argument Kurt Rowland 
    Kurt Rowland was born in Vienna. His freelance career began in 1951, and his association with a London educational publishing firm provided the impetus for him to write and design his remarkable Looking and Seeing and Learning to See, a series of books for schools designed to act as courses in visual education.
    The myths of art and science Patrick Wallis Burke  
    Patrick Wallis Burke, Executive Editor of this journal, is also Principal Lecturer in Graphic Design to the School of Graphic Design, Ravens­bourne, a Diploma College near London.
    Problems of adult education Ake Edfeldt 
    Ake Edfeldt is Professor in Education in the University of Stockholm. He has published a number of books and articles on reading, communi­cation effects, and behaviour modification. He has also produced various television series on general adult education and emotional training at work and in home life.
    22 Our collective knowledge


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    Table of Contents

    Introduction Ernest Hoch 
    2   A standard specification for print production Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger
      Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger are in practice as information design consultants (Maurice Goldring Associates, London). Maurice Goldring is chairman of the SIAD/STD Typo­graphers' Computer Working Group
    4   On 'Typos': new Japanese type face
    Shin-ichi Seki 
      Shin·ichi Seki is a lecturer at Shizuoka University and a member of the Japanese Society for Science of Design.
    Designing for Nuffield Foundation science 
    teaching projects Ivan and Robin Dodd
       Ivan and Robin Dodd were among the first British designers whose practice concentrated to a consider­able extent on design for education.
    8   Our next issue
      Design education will be the theme of icographic 4, and the same issue will be devoted to the role of the designer in education—a role that is taking shape in various countries and in many forms.
    10  Designing a periodical for a variety of textual needs Peter Burnhill 
      Peter Burnhill is Head of Design Department at Stafford College of Art and Design. He is a member of the Working Party on Typographic Teaching and a founder member of the SIAD/STD Typographers’ Computer Working Group, one of whose study groups he chairs.
    12  Penguin paperbacks Germano Faceta
    Germano Facetti is a member of Alliance Graphique lntenationale. As art director of Penguin Books Limited he was responsible for the well-known Penguin restyling programme.
    14  Designing and producing a consumers' association magazine John Miles 
    John Miles, a partner in Banks and Miles, London, discusses experiences with one of the periodicals for which their practice is responsible.
    16  A new Hebrew sans serif for bilingual printing Asher Oron 
    Asher Oran is a freelance graphic designer devoting part of his working week to the Graphic Design Department of the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem.
    18  Language and readability Tibor Szanto 
    Tibor Szanto is art director of Magyar Helikon, Department of Luxe Editions, Budapest.
    Type designing in the future Hermann Zapf 
    Hermann Zapf, a former chairman of the Type Designers' Committee of the Association Typographique Inter­nationale writes about the funda­mental changes facing the alphabet designer today.
    23  The demise of the point system in sight Ernest Hoch
    Ernest Hoch teaches at Reading 
    University and practises in London. He is chairman of the lcograda Standardization Commission.
    25  Our collective knowledge
    As a means of adding to the collective knowledge of our organization, the Executive Editor invites contributions to icographic from members or suggested experts in member countries. Members can assist in ensuring a
    steady flow of source references, and of book reviews, as one facet of this function of icographic.


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    Table of Contents

    1 Television as universal educator Aubrey Singer 
    To design a television system not merely for social communication, but also capable of responding to a whole range of intellectual values and spiritual problems, is at the heart of the design challenge and of our present dilemma. Aubrey Singer contributes a challenging and controversial view of some of the problems raised by television broadcasting. He is at present Head of Features Group for BBC Television (United Kingdom).
    Visual study in teaching animation Ion Popescu-Gape
      Ion Popescu-Gopo has been a painter, cartoonist, sculptor, journalist, film­ producer and film director. From 1950–1960 he was Head of the Bucharest Studio for Animated Films. In 1969 he took up his present appointment as Film and Television Officer of the World Health Organisation. 
    Defining the goals of education Asa Briggs
      The article published below is a transcript of the opening address for VisCom 71 given by Professor Asa Briggs, Vice Chancellor of the University of Sussex.
    4 Visual communication and education Henry R Cassirer
      Henry R Cassirer joined UNESCO in 1952 and is Director of the Division of Use of Mass Media in Out-of­ School Education. He has written several books on the development of television and radio throughout the world and their use in education. 
    Laser holography as a new medium for visual communication Margaret Benyon and Jonathan Benthall
      This article has been based on a paper prepared by Margaret Benyon for the VisCom 71 Congress. Use has also been made of some extracts from an introductory note by Jonathan Benthall for a recent exhibition of Miss Benyon's work. 
    6 Some research into sign perception Ryszard Otreba
      Doctor Ryszard Otreba's article is a summary of some research that he carried out in connection with a recently published paper entitled 'variability of sign perception in horizontal motion'. Doctor Otreba is at present working at the Crakow Academy of Fine Art.
    7 The book in an audio-visual world F Borden Mace
    F Borden Mace takes a cool look at the so-called 'communications explosion'. Mr Mace is Communi­cations Consultant to Doubleday Multimedia (USA).
    8 Some views on VisCom 71
    The Austrian President, Franz Jonas, delivering an address of welcome to the delegates attending the VisCom 71 Congress held in the Hofburg Congress Centre, Vienna. Photograph by Foro Schikola.
    9 Audio-visual hardware



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    Table of Contents

    2   Speakers at VISCOM ‘71
    3   ICOGRADA Congress and exhibition
      The diagram below tries to clarify the content of the VisCom 71 Congress on the Learning Industry. The difference between VisCom 71 and other conferences on visual communication is that it is attempting to combine a number of disciplines which are affecting the industry.
    In this way it is hoped that the problems will be viewed in their totality and so reveal the relationships between the various activities and their interdependence.

    4   Computer animated movies KC Knowlton
      The illustration shows a sequence of six stills that were produced using the author's new computer language, EXPLØR. EXPLØR is designed for explicit patterns, logical operations, and randomness, and the author will discuss its applications during his speech at VisCom 71.
    5   Differentiating images ltsuo Sakane 
      ltsuo Sakane's article was originally published in 'Graphic Design' (Japan) edited by Masuru Katsumie.
    6   Symbol design in the GDR Gerard Voight 
      Gerard Voigt is a graphic designer and the present Deputy President of the Verbund Bildende Kuenstler of the German Democratic Republic. He was a winner of the Trade Prize from the District of Halle and a winner of the Art Prize from the city of Halle.
    7   Two Belgian designers 
      Jacques Richez, Michel Olyff
    8   Armin Hofmann
    Armin Hofmann is the first Honorary Fellow of the Society of Typographical Designers. An exhibition at the Central School of Art of his work was opened in January by Keith 
    Murgatroyd, President of the Society which sponsored the show.
    Design and science by Paul Kenny 
    Paul Kenny was, until recently, teaching at the Faculty of Creative Arts at San Francisco State College. His article is devoted to the search 
    for a possible new visual language utilising the research of human physiology and experiments in visual communication.
    11   Holography
    ICOGRADA exhibition in Prague 
    Top photograph shows, from left to right, John Halas, Marijke Singer and Stanislav Kovar at the 'Pro Bono Publico' Exhibition in Prague. Photograph by Martin Pycha. Photographs below show a selection of some of the posters which were included in the Exhibition.
    13   Audio-visual hardware
      The possibilities in new technical developments of mass­communication can always be of interest to graphic designers. As the introduction of off-set litho printing has extended the powers of designers whose work is in printing, so also the development of new machines and facilities for displaying moving pictures can extend the powers of designers who are moving into the audio-visual field.

    On this page we show some items of hardware which may help to make audio-visual communication easier in the classroom and in every situation where good audio-visual design is needed.

    14   Definition of Cybernetic Nicolas Scheffer
    Design organisations in Sweden Claes Folkeson