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3The significance of lsotype Michael TwymanThe author discusses the pioneer work of Otto Neurath and his lsotype team. Neurath saw the need to establish conventions for picture language in order to make communication easier and more effective. Obviously, the major influence of the lsotype movement is seen most clearly in the field of graphicstatistics but they also offered some important lessons in the way they approached communication problems. 10 lsotype in the USAAs a brief supplement to Michael Twyman's article, we show some of the symbols designed in the United States by Pictorial Statistics (an American offshoot of the lsotype movement) in the 1930s. 11Traveller's symbols Thomas R HofmannThe author believes that opportunities are being lost for a more painless introduction of international symbols for the traveller. He discusses why he thinks that graphic symbols should not be allowed to stand mute without some form of explanation as to their meaning. 12Bauhaus and grandson of Bauhaus Robert A ManningThe author outlines the history of the Institute of Design at Illinois Institute of Technology, from its founding in 1937 under Moholy-Nagy up to the present time. He reassesses the original Bauhaus approach to design and describes the many changes in emphasis that have taken place at the Institute. He also contends that, in spite of these necessary changes, the Institute of Design still represents a thriving, legitimate offspring of the original Bauhaus founded 56 years earlier. 14Towards a more consistent English spelling JJ DamesThe author, a Dutchman who has spent most of his life in Africa, discusses the problems of English spelling. He provides a timely reminder that the problems of English orthography should no longer be the sole concern of those who speak it as their mother tongue. Because of its primacy as a second world language, millions of people from all cultures are vitally interested in how its spelling might be reformed. 15Towards a new alphabet Mohan S Kala Everyone is agreed on the need for a new set of alphabetic symbols that are both man and machine amenable. The author, who has been doing research in alphanumerics and metro logy, claims that his Fondijyal system fulfils both requirements.
16The age of the symbol manipulating sensory cripple Peter Bartl The author presents some arguments for an education that gives as much attention to a child's visual sensory development as it currently gives to reading and writing.
17 RTA—The Transit Network Dick Feigler 18First steps on a thousand mile journey—part 1 Patrick Wallis BurkeMy own contribution is the first part of a longer article designed to give some descriptions of the Chinese writing system. My hope is to show that the Chinese written language offers the graphic designer some important insights into the nature of pictorial communication, and also forces one to consider the gains and losses of alphabetic writing. 26 Design education and standardization Ernest HochThe author argues that for the student designer an understanding of the nature of standardization is vital. Standardization, far from being a break upon creativity, is a necessary prerequisite for any student who wishes to act responsibly as a designer. The concept of standardization touches upon the fundamental question of the relationship between freedom and restriction upon it, between creativity and a frameworkof constraints. 27Correspondance 28Problem solving in the man-made environment Michael McCoyThe author describes an environ mental Education Project undertaken by graduates and staff of Cranbrook Academy, USA. The project involved the design and development of a curriculum and supporting teaching aids, on the theme The man-made environment. It is intended for use in the grades 6-9 in the state education system.
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2Edugraphology—the myths of design and the design of myths Victor PapanekDesign philosophy and the designer's self-image have been victim to a series of shocks. Some twenty years ago designers saw themselves primarily as artists, able to close the gap between technology and market ing through their concern with form, function, colour, texture, harmony and proportion. For an industrial designer or architect, a further concern was with cost, convenience and "taste." Within ten years the designer's role had broadened into a systems approach, showing greater interest in production, distribution, market-testing and sales. This opened the door to team-design, although with the team largely made up of the technocrats, sales specialists and modish "persuaders." 4The myth of the 26 letter Roman alphabet Patrick Wallis BurkeThe alphabet is the last, the most highly developed, the most convenient and the most easily adaptable system of writing. Alphabetic writing is now universally employed by civilized peoples; its use is acquired in childhood with ease. There is an enormous advantage, obviously, in the use of letters which represent single sounds rather than ideas or syllables. No sinologist knows all the 80,000 or so Chinese symbols, but it is also far from easy to master the 9,000 or so symbols actually employed by Chinese scholars. How far easier it is to use the 22 or 24 or 26 signs only! —David Diringer, The alphabet 9 Kingsley Read—a pioneer of an English phonetic alphabet Patrick Wallis BurkeWhilst this issue of icographic was being prepared, my dear friend Kingsley Read died.For almost a year now, he and I had worked on the refining of his last project-Sound-Spell, which is described on pages 10-13. When I looked through the many letters that had passed between us, and thought of the many times that we had spoken on the telephone, it seemed almost impossible that our association lasted only one year. It will always feel as though he occupied a much larger part of my life.My family, and many of my friends, through seeing the work we were doing, talked as though they knew him too. —Patrick Wallis Burke 10The Sound-Spell, an alphabet and a policyKingsley ReadEducationists uninterested in reforming English spelling are show ing interest in the use of 'initial teaching media' which enable children sooner to read fluently, not only in spelling more often true to speech, but sooner and better in normal orthodox spelling. The first and best attested of such media is i.t.a., the Initial Teaching Alphabet. 14 Soundspel—an American approach to a phonetic alphabetIn view of the fact that we are publishing the first announcement of the late Kingsley Read's 'Sound=Spell,' it was thought that readers might like the chance to compare it with an American approach to the same problem. In spite of their similar names, the two systems represent radically different solutions. 15 World language without words Rudolf Modley An historian and designer of graphic symbols attempts to bring some order out of the chaos of our varied systems of communication through symbols.
20 Two approaches to book cover design Helmut SchmidThe 'paperback' symbolizes the Instant accessibility of our traditional Western literary culture. It is cheap, compact, standardized and expendable, not an exhibition piece for the bookshelf.
22 The book in a TV-age Erik Ellegard FrederiksenThe book is no longer what it used to be.This is not the grumble of some Jeremiah dolefully finding new proof of degeneration, but an admission that the book will change more and more because man's conditions and situation have altered. Originally, books were intended for the educated few prepared for slow, careful reading.
23 Note to contributors
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3One writing for one world—the pioneer work of C K Bliss Patrick Wallis BurkeExperiments conducted by teachers have shown that children grasp these pictorial Blissymbols quicker than words. They can read new combinations they have never seen before, and they can boldly and logically combine new meanings they need when writing to penfriends who speak other languages. 7 TypoAsia 74 Sato KeinosukeThe majority of participating countries use Indian type letters. Syllables are formed by adding vowel signs over, under, or on both sides of the consonant. If typefaces are constructed with the vowel signs integral with the character, the number of pieces becomes extremely large. Consequently, the vowel signs are cast separately from the consonants, as additional characters. There are a great many, and they are very small, so that it takes a lot of time to set type. They are also easy to damage or lose. For syllables that are used very frequently, the vowel signs are made integral with the character. As a result, there is a real need for studies of frequency of syllables to be undertaken. 8 'Stamp on it'—some aspects of postage stamp design Stuart RoseThe author, who is Design Advisor to the British Post Office, gives a short historical survey of British postage stamp design, from the first ever stamp (the Penny Black of 1840), to the present day. He then goes on to discuss the various difficulties that accompany the design of the many commemorative issues that are now produced in Britain. 12 Easier than ABC-some experiments with a 'plastic' language Peter WatsonToday Charlie W is a star pupil. A year ago he was a mental write-off to many people. He had an IQ of only 15 then (the average is 100), and the chances of him ever being able to look after himself or do any of the ordinary things which children enjoy seemed completely beyond him. 13 Communication in an environment and by an environment Peter KneeboneWhen we speak of corporate identity we are probably thinking of systems of products, services, events, and so on, and the way in which they are identified and communicate coherently with us, either as users or as potential users. A corporate identity, in this sense, is something which is designed (perhaps for the first time, or perhaps revised and recreated more than once) to identify, coordinate and express the special character of the system in all its manifestations-both to its consumers and to those who operate it. To make me feel good about buying it, or feel good about working for it. To make me recognise it instantly. To make me want it. To tell me how to use it. To rationalise its functioning. Also to make it more profitable. 15 The roots of the problem Hartford ThomasIf you are looking for moral stories about the way we live now you can hardly do better than consider the present state of the paper industry.
16 Note to contributors 16 Six thousand years of writing René PonotThe general public is surprised and impressed to learn that many people wrote "in the past" on a wide variety of materials. Doesn't this happen nowadays and in many extraordinary ways? The man in the street can have few preconceived ideas about it. Does the mother who dishes out a ladle-full of soup containing dozens of letters of the alphabet, ask herself whether the pasta is a material for writing?
23 How to design in Chinese (without really being able to read it) Henry Steiner The designs shown in this article were done by me during the past few years, employing Chinese characters.
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2Type in our environment Armin HofmannThis short article is taken from the introductory remarks to an illustrated Tecture given by Armin Hofmann at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms' held in Copenhagen. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful to them for their permission to publish this extract. 3A proposition for education in letterforms and handwriting Wim CrouwelThe text of Wim Crouwel's article is taken from a paper given at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms', held in Copenhagen during August 1973. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful for their permission to publish it in this issue. 4Investigation into colour preferences Tom Porter 6Swiss posters for Amnesty InternationalIn July 1973, the Association of Swiss Graphic Designers (Association Suisse des Graphistes ASG) sent a letter to all its members, associates and students, asking them to take part in a poster design project for Amnesty International. The subject chosen was: "How the graphic designer sees the problem of the torture of political prisoners…»A jury representing the ASG and Amnesty International has chosen one of the submitted designs for use as an official poster. The posters were exhibited recently. None was given pride of place nor was any order of merit indicated. The sole aim of the exhibition was to show the many differing interpretations of the theme. It showed also the deep concern of Swiss graphic designers over the use of torture.Shown here are 30 of the 75 posters which were exhibited. The numbers are intended only as a means of identifying the designers. They do not indicate any order of merit.. 8Sound-writing Kingsley ReadGeorge Bernard Shaw died convinced that a new English alphabet was needed to enable people to write and read the language more efficiently. He left funds for that purpose, and the evolution of the new alphabet, known as the 'Shaw Alphabet', is related here by its designer Kingsley Read. 12 Concerning Signposting Paul Mijksenaar and Gerard UngerPaul Mijksenaar originally trained as an industrial designer. Since then he has worked in both industrial design and graphic design. He is Chairman of the Applied Art section of the Arts Council of Amsterdam. He is also a member of the Dutch Commission NEC 3C (signs for apparatus) and of ISO/TC 145 which is concerned with the international standardization of graphic symbols.Gerard Unger trained as a graphic designer. Following work for a number of organizations he set up a free-lance practice in 1970. In collaboration with Joh. Enschede and Sons he designed the typeface 'Markeur' for engraving on plastics and metal plates, together with a signing system.In 1972 Paul Mijksenaar and Gerard Unger went into partnership, forming a design consultancy called Sign Design specialising in the problems of signing and situated in Amsterdam. 15 Signposting and Communication Media Paul Mijksenaar and Gerard Unger 22Typographical training for technicians and technical training for typographers Adrian FrutigerThe text of Adrian Frutiger's article is taken from a paper given at the 16th International Congress on 'Education in Letterforms', held in Copenhagen during August 1973. The Congress was organised by the Association Typographique Internationale, and we are grateful for their permission to publish it in this issue.
23 Note to Contributors 24 Appendix to sound-writing
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2The working man's philosophy of art Sydney LewisSydney Lewis has headed his own design and printing firm for ten years. He has just completed a sabbatical year of study at London· University reading Philosophy of Symbolic Form. He is currently a vice-president of the International Council of Graphic Design Associations 4Some aspects of design from the perspective of a woman designer Sheila Levrant de BrettevilleSheila Levrant de Bretteville is a young American woman designer who currently runs an architectural and design practice with her husband in Los Angeles. She is a graphic designer, teacher, critic, and mother to a three year old boy called Jason. 8The Women’s Design Program California Institute of the ArtsAs she indicated in her article, Sheila de Bretteville has been connected with the Women's Design Program at the California Institute of the Arts. Because the work of this program seems to demonstrate an important attempt to embody feminist principles into a course of study, we publish a selection of work by some of its students. 12 Alphanumeric symbols for mosaic printers and display tubes J M Dirken, H van Campenhout, W Crouwel, J L de Kroes et alBruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers. 15LoCoS-an experimental pictorial language Yukio OtaYukio Ota is a Japanese graphic designer who has spent a number of years in developing an experimental pictorial language. In this short article he explains the general principles upon which it operates. 20 Legibility research-the ergonomics of print Jeremy J FosterJeremy J Foster is a lecturer in psychology and editor of Legibility Research Abstracts. As a research fellow at the Manchester Polytechnic he conducted a programme of research into the legibility of print. 24 Note to contributors
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2 Foreword Edward WegmanEdward Wegman is Head of Unesco's International Book Year Unit and we are grateful to him for providing this foreword to our fifth issue. 3 Books and barbarity John OlfordJohn Offord is a writer and philosopher, currently teaching in the Liberal Studies Department of a Design School in London. 4The role of the book designer Peter Kneebone and Germano FacettiPeter Kneebone is one of the founder members of lcograda and is currently Chairman of its Signs and Symbols Commission. Germano Facetti is a graphic designer with an international reputation, probably best known for his work for Penguin Books. 5 Visual aids Bruce Robertson and Robert ChapmanBruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers. 8Some tasks for future book design Albert KaprProfessor Albert Kapr is Principal of the Hochschule fur Grafik und Buchkunst in Leipzig. 10The book in a changing cultural climate Patrick Wallis BurkePatrick Wallis Burke, Executive Editor of this journal, is also Principal Lecturer in Graphic Design to the School of Graphic Design, Ravensbourne, a Diploma College near London. 12The essential book Edward WrightEdward Wright is Head of the Graphics Department at Chelsea School of Art. He is a member of the SIAD/STD Typographer's Computer Working Group. 16The changing responsibilities of the typographic designer G W OvinkG W Ovink is art consultant for Tetterode-Nederland and extraordinary professor at the University of Amsterdam in history and aesthetics of the art of printing and allied trades. Dr Ovink is also a board member of the Association Typographique Internationale. 18 Designing the International Book Year symbolMichel Olyff is a consultant designer to a wide variety of industrial concerns. He is a member of the Board of the Chambre des Graphistes (CBG) and Union Professionelle des Industrial Designers (UID) as well as a member of AGI. 22 Book Review
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3Creativity: a teachable skill? T F Warren T F Warren, an American psychologist, is currently a member of the Faculty of the University of Wisconsin, where he is engaged in teaching and research.
6Visual communication in East Africa Walter Plata Walter Plata lectures in the Depart· ment of Design, University of Nairobi, Kenya. He was educated and trained in Germany, where he started designing visual communication in 1950. In 1961 he began teaching as assistant professor of graphic design at Rhode Island School of Design and has since been both a designer and teacher in many countries
8National Institute of Design, Paldi, Ahmedabad, India Walter PlataBelow, one of the projects undertaken by the Institute, the design of a Devanagari script suitable for mechanised printing. Devanagari script is used by the 237 million Hindi speaking people of India. Many of the other scripts used by the various linguistic groups in India are derived from Devanagari. Within the context of a national programme for mass education and improved communication, the development of a Devanagari script suitable for mechanised printing, such as typewriting, typecasting and photocomposition, was vitally important. The consultant for this project was Adrian Frutiger. 9An American view of British graphic design education Al GowanAl Gowan is head of Graphic Design at Boston University, USA, and edits Designcourse, an international quarterly. He operates a freelance design office in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
10Relating teaching to what is known about learning David Warren Piper David Warren Piper is an educational psychologist with considerable experience of teaching in design and architectural schools. He is currently working at the University Teaching Methods Unit of the University of London Institute of Education.
12Learning at home for pre-school children345 Limited is a company specializing in the production and marketing of aids to pre-school education. Their products are aimed at helping parents to guide their children's development, through play at home. They have developed materials for three main areas, prereading activities, number sense and speech development. A series of books includes picture stories, rhymes, puzzles, tear-out games and gramophone records. 15 The 'finger exercises' of Jurriaan Schroferwith acknowledgements to the artist and to the publishers of the Dutch magazine Graficus Revue. 16Designing books that present a visual argument Kurt RowlandKurt Rowland was born in Vienna. His freelance career began in 1951, and his association with a London educational publishing firm provided the impetus for him to write and design his remarkable Looking and Seeing and Learning to See, a series of books for schools designed to act as courses in visual education. 18The myths of art and science Patrick Wallis BurkePatrick Wallis Burke, Executive Editor of this journal, is also Principal Lecturer in Graphic Design to the School of Graphic Design, Ravensbourne, a Diploma College near London. 21Problems of adult education Ake EdfeldtAke Edfeldt is Professor in Education in the University of Stockholm. He has published a number of books and articles on reading, communication effects, and behaviour modification. He has also produced various television series on general adult education and emotional training at work and in home life. 22 Our collective knowledge
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1 Introduction Ernest Hoch
2 A standard specification for print production Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger are in practice as information design consultants (Maurice Goldring Associates, London). Maurice Goldring is chairman of the SIAD/STD Typographers' Computer Working Group
4 On 'Typos': new Japanese type face
Shin·ichi Seki is a lecturer at Shizuoka University and a member of the Japanese Society for Science of Design.
6Designing for Nuffield Foundation scienceteaching projects Ivan and Robin Dodd Ivan and Robin Dodd were among the first British designers whose practice concentrated to a considerable extent on design for education. 8 Our next issue Design education will be the theme of icographic 4, and the same issue will be devoted to the role of the designer in education—a role that is taking shape in various countries and in many forms.
10 Designing a periodical for a variety of textual needs Peter Burnhill Peter Burnhill is Head of Design Department at Stafford College of Art and Design. He is a member of the Working Party on Typographic Teaching and a founder member of the SIAD/STD Typographers’ Computer Working Group, one of whose study groups he chairs.
12 Penguin paperbacks Germano FacetaGermano Facetti is a member of Alliance Graphique lntenationale. As art director of Penguin Books Limited he was responsible for the well-known Penguin restyling programme. 14 Designing and producing a consumers' association magazine John MilesJohn Miles, a partner in Banks and Miles, London, discusses experiences with one of the periodicals for which their practice is responsible. 16 A new Hebrew sans serif for bilingual printing Asher OronAsher Oran is a freelance graphic designer devoting part of his working week to the Graphic Design Department of the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem.
18 Language and readability Tibor SzantoTibor Szanto is art director of Magyar Helikon, Department of Luxe Editions, Budapest. 20Type designing in the future Hermann ZapfHermann Zapf, a former chairman of the Type Designers' Committee of the Association Typographique Internationale writes about the fundamental changes facing the alphabet designer today. 23 The demise of the point system in sight Ernest HochErnest Hoch teaches at ReadingUniversity and practises in London. He is chairman of the lcograda Standardization Commission. 25 Our collective knowledgeAs a means of adding to the collective knowledge of our organization, the Executive Editor invites contributions to icographic from members or suggested experts in member countries. Members can assist in ensuring asteady flow of source references, and of book reviews, as one facet of this function of icographic.
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1 Television as universal educator Aubrey Singer
To design a television system not merely for social communication, but also capable of responding to a whole range of intellectual values and spiritual problems, is at the heart of the design challenge and of our present dilemma. Aubrey Singer contributes a challenging and controversial view of some of the problems raised by television broadcasting. He is at present Head of Features Group for BBC Television (United Kingdom).
2 Visual study in teaching animation Ion Popescu-Gape Ion Popescu-Gopo has been a painter, cartoonist, sculptor, journalist, film producer and film director. From 1950–1960 he was Head of the Bucharest Studio for Animated Films. In 1969 he took up his present appointment as Film and Television Officer of the World Health Organisation.
3 Defining the goals of education Asa Briggs The article published below is a transcript of the opening address for VisCom 71 given by Professor Asa Briggs, Vice Chancellor of the University of Sussex.
4 Visual communication and education Henry R Cassirer Henry R Cassirer joined UNESCO in 1952 and is Director of the Division of Use of Mass Media in Out-of School Education. He has written several books on the development of television and radio throughout the world and their use in education.
5 Laser holography as a new medium for visual communication Margaret Benyon and Jonathan Benthall This article has been based on a paper prepared by Margaret Benyon for the VisCom 71 Congress. Use has also been made of some extracts from an introductory note by Jonathan Benthall for a recent exhibition of Miss Benyon's work.
6 Some research into sign perception Ryszard Otreba Doctor Ryszard Otreba's article is a summary of some research that he carried out in connection with a recently published paper entitled 'variability of sign perception in horizontal motion'. Doctor Otreba is at present working at the Crakow Academy of Fine Art.
7 The book in an audio-visual world F Borden MaceF Borden Mace takes a cool look at the so-called 'communications explosion'. Mr Mace is Communications Consultant to Doubleday Multimedia (USA). 8 Some views on VisCom 71The Austrian President, Franz Jonas, delivering an address of welcome to the delegates attending the VisCom 71 Congress held in the Hofburg Congress Centre, Vienna. Photograph by Foro Schikola. 9 Audio-visual hardware
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2 Speakers at VISCOM ‘71
3 ICOGRADA Congress and exhibition The diagram below tries to clarify the content of the VisCom 71 Congress on the Learning Industry. The difference between VisCom 71 and other conferences on visual communication is that it is attempting to combine a number of disciplines which are affecting the industry.
In this way it is hoped that the problems will be viewed in their totality and so reveal the relationships between the various activities and their interdependence.
4 Computer animated movies KC Knowlton The illustration shows a sequence of six stills that were produced using the author's new computer language, EXPLØR. EXPLØR is designed for explicit patterns, logical operations, and randomness, and the author will discuss its applications during his speech at VisCom 71.
5 Differentiating images ltsuo Sakane ltsuo Sakane's article was originally published in 'Graphic Design' (Japan) edited by Masuru Katsumie.
6 Symbol design in the GDR Gerard Voight Gerard Voigt is a graphic designer and the present Deputy President of the Verbund Bildende Kuenstler of the German Democratic Republic. He was a winner of the Trade Prize from the District of Halle and a winner of the Art Prize from the city of Halle.
7 Two Belgian designers Jacques Richez, Michel Olyff
8 Armin HofmannArmin Hofmann is the first Honorary Fellow of the Society of Typographical Designers. An exhibition at the Central School of Art of his work was opened in January by KeithMurgatroyd, President of the Society which sponsored the show.
10Design and science by Paul KennyPaul Kenny was, until recently, teaching at the Faculty of Creative Arts at San Francisco State College. His article is devoted to the searchfor a possible new visual language utilising the research of human physiology and experiments in visual communication.
12ICOGRADA exhibition in PragueTop photograph shows, from left to right, John Halas, Marijke Singer and Stanislav Kovar at the 'Pro Bono Publico' Exhibition in Prague. Photograph by Martin Pycha. Photographs below show a selection of some of the posters which were included in the Exhibition.
13 Audio-visual hardware The possibilities in new technical developments of masscommunication can always be of interest to graphic designers. As the introduction of off-set litho printing has extended the powers of designers whose work is in printing, so also the development of new machines and facilities for displaying moving pictures can extend the powers of designers who are moving into the audio-visual field.
On this page we show some items of hardware which may help to make audio-visual communication easier in the classroom and in every situation where good audio-visual design is needed.
14 Definition of Cybernetic Nicolas Scheffer
15Design organisations in Sweden Claes Folkeson