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2The working man's philosophy of art Sydney LewisSydney Lewis has headed his own design and printing firm for ten years. He has just completed a sabbatical year of study at London· University reading Philosophy of Symbolic Form. He is currently a vice-president of the International Council of Graphic Design Associations 4Some aspects of design from the perspective of a woman designer Sheila Levrant de BrettevilleSheila Levrant de Bretteville is a young American woman designer who currently runs an architectural and design practice with her husband in Los Angeles. She is a graphic designer, teacher, critic, and mother to a three year old boy called Jason. 8The Women’s Design Program California Institute of the ArtsAs she indicated in her article, Sheila de Bretteville has been connected with the Women's Design Program at the California Institute of the Arts. Because the work of this program seems to demonstrate an important attempt to embody feminist principles into a course of study, we publish a selection of work by some of its students. 12 Alphanumeric symbols for mosaic printers and display tubes J M Dirken, H van Campenhout, W Crouwel, J L de Kroes et alBruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers. 15LoCoS-an experimental pictorial language Yukio OtaYukio Ota is a Japanese graphic designer who has spent a number of years in developing an experimental pictorial language. In this short article he explains the general principles upon which it operates. 20 Legibility research-the ergonomics of print Jeremy J FosterJeremy J Foster is a lecturer in psychology and editor of Legibility Research Abstracts. As a research fellow at the Manchester Polytechnic he conducted a programme of research into the legibility of print. 24 Note to contributors
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2 Foreword Edward WegmanEdward Wegman is Head of Unesco's International Book Year Unit and we are grateful to him for providing this foreword to our fifth issue. 3 Books and barbarity John OlfordJohn Offord is a writer and philosopher, currently teaching in the Liberal Studies Department of a Design School in London. 4The role of the book designer Peter Kneebone and Germano FacettiPeter Kneebone is one of the founder members of lcograda and is currently Chairman of its Signs and Symbols Commission. Germano Facetti is a graphic designer with an international reputation, probably best known for his work for Penguin Books. 5 Visual aids Bruce Robertson and Robert ChapmanBruce Robertson and Robert Chapman are directors of DIAGRAM, a London based cooperative of statisticians and designers. 8Some tasks for future book design Albert KaprProfessor Albert Kapr is Principal of the Hochschule fur Grafik und Buchkunst in Leipzig. 10The book in a changing cultural climate Patrick Wallis BurkePatrick Wallis Burke, Executive Editor of this journal, is also Principal Lecturer in Graphic Design to the School of Graphic Design, Ravensbourne, a Diploma College near London. 12The essential book Edward WrightEdward Wright is Head of the Graphics Department at Chelsea School of Art. He is a member of the SIAD/STD Typographer's Computer Working Group. 16The changing responsibilities of the typographic designer G W OvinkG W Ovink is art consultant for Tetterode-Nederland and extraordinary professor at the University of Amsterdam in history and aesthetics of the art of printing and allied trades. Dr Ovink is also a board member of the Association Typographique Internationale. 18 Designing the International Book Year symbolMichel Olyff is a consultant designer to a wide variety of industrial concerns. He is a member of the Board of the Chambre des Graphistes (CBG) and Union Professionelle des Industrial Designers (UID) as well as a member of AGI. 22 Book Review
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3Creativity: a teachable skill? T F Warren T F Warren, an American psychologist, is currently a member of the Faculty of the University of Wisconsin, where he is engaged in teaching and research.
6Visual communication in East Africa Walter Plata Walter Plata lectures in the Depart· ment of Design, University of Nairobi, Kenya. He was educated and trained in Germany, where he started designing visual communication in 1950. In 1961 he began teaching as assistant professor of graphic design at Rhode Island School of Design and has since been both a designer and teacher in many countries
8National Institute of Design, Paldi, Ahmedabad, India Walter PlataBelow, one of the projects undertaken by the Institute, the design of a Devanagari script suitable for mechanised printing. Devanagari script is used by the 237 million Hindi speaking people of India. Many of the other scripts used by the various linguistic groups in India are derived from Devanagari. Within the context of a national programme for mass education and improved communication, the development of a Devanagari script suitable for mechanised printing, such as typewriting, typecasting and photocomposition, was vitally important. The consultant for this project was Adrian Frutiger. 9An American view of British graphic design education Al GowanAl Gowan is head of Graphic Design at Boston University, USA, and edits Designcourse, an international quarterly. He operates a freelance design office in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
10Relating teaching to what is known about learning David Warren Piper David Warren Piper is an educational psychologist with considerable experience of teaching in design and architectural schools. He is currently working at the University Teaching Methods Unit of the University of London Institute of Education.
12Learning at home for pre-school children345 Limited is a company specializing in the production and marketing of aids to pre-school education. Their products are aimed at helping parents to guide their children's development, through play at home. They have developed materials for three main areas, prereading activities, number sense and speech development. A series of books includes picture stories, rhymes, puzzles, tear-out games and gramophone records. 15 The 'finger exercises' of Jurriaan Schroferwith acknowledgements to the artist and to the publishers of the Dutch magazine Graficus Revue. 16Designing books that present a visual argument Kurt RowlandKurt Rowland was born in Vienna. His freelance career began in 1951, and his association with a London educational publishing firm provided the impetus for him to write and design his remarkable Looking and Seeing and Learning to See, a series of books for schools designed to act as courses in visual education. 18The myths of art and science Patrick Wallis BurkePatrick Wallis Burke, Executive Editor of this journal, is also Principal Lecturer in Graphic Design to the School of Graphic Design, Ravensbourne, a Diploma College near London. 21Problems of adult education Ake EdfeldtAke Edfeldt is Professor in Education in the University of Stockholm. He has published a number of books and articles on reading, communication effects, and behaviour modification. He has also produced various television series on general adult education and emotional training at work and in home life. 22 Our collective knowledge
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1 Introduction Ernest Hoch
2 A standard specification for print production Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger Maurice Goldring and Angela Hackelsberger are in practice as information design consultants (Maurice Goldring Associates, London). Maurice Goldring is chairman of the SIAD/STD Typographers' Computer Working Group
4 On 'Typos': new Japanese type face
Shin·ichi Seki is a lecturer at Shizuoka University and a member of the Japanese Society for Science of Design.
6Designing for Nuffield Foundation scienceteaching projects Ivan and Robin Dodd Ivan and Robin Dodd were among the first British designers whose practice concentrated to a considerable extent on design for education. 8 Our next issue Design education will be the theme of icographic 4, and the same issue will be devoted to the role of the designer in education—a role that is taking shape in various countries and in many forms.
10 Designing a periodical for a variety of textual needs Peter Burnhill Peter Burnhill is Head of Design Department at Stafford College of Art and Design. He is a member of the Working Party on Typographic Teaching and a founder member of the SIAD/STD Typographers’ Computer Working Group, one of whose study groups he chairs.
12 Penguin paperbacks Germano FacetaGermano Facetti is a member of Alliance Graphique lntenationale. As art director of Penguin Books Limited he was responsible for the well-known Penguin restyling programme. 14 Designing and producing a consumers' association magazine John MilesJohn Miles, a partner in Banks and Miles, London, discusses experiences with one of the periodicals for which their practice is responsible. 16 A new Hebrew sans serif for bilingual printing Asher OronAsher Oran is a freelance graphic designer devoting part of his working week to the Graphic Design Department of the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design, Jerusalem.
18 Language and readability Tibor SzantoTibor Szanto is art director of Magyar Helikon, Department of Luxe Editions, Budapest. 20Type designing in the future Hermann ZapfHermann Zapf, a former chairman of the Type Designers' Committee of the Association Typographique Internationale writes about the fundamental changes facing the alphabet designer today. 23 The demise of the point system in sight Ernest HochErnest Hoch teaches at ReadingUniversity and practises in London. He is chairman of the lcograda Standardization Commission. 25 Our collective knowledgeAs a means of adding to the collective knowledge of our organization, the Executive Editor invites contributions to icographic from members or suggested experts in member countries. Members can assist in ensuring asteady flow of source references, and of book reviews, as one facet of this function of icographic.
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1 Television as universal educator Aubrey Singer
To design a television system not merely for social communication, but also capable of responding to a whole range of intellectual values and spiritual problems, is at the heart of the design challenge and of our present dilemma. Aubrey Singer contributes a challenging and controversial view of some of the problems raised by television broadcasting. He is at present Head of Features Group for BBC Television (United Kingdom).
2 Visual study in teaching animation Ion Popescu-Gape Ion Popescu-Gopo has been a painter, cartoonist, sculptor, journalist, film producer and film director. From 1950–1960 he was Head of the Bucharest Studio for Animated Films. In 1969 he took up his present appointment as Film and Television Officer of the World Health Organisation.
3 Defining the goals of education Asa Briggs The article published below is a transcript of the opening address for VisCom 71 given by Professor Asa Briggs, Vice Chancellor of the University of Sussex.
4 Visual communication and education Henry R Cassirer Henry R Cassirer joined UNESCO in 1952 and is Director of the Division of Use of Mass Media in Out-of School Education. He has written several books on the development of television and radio throughout the world and their use in education.
5 Laser holography as a new medium for visual communication Margaret Benyon and Jonathan Benthall This article has been based on a paper prepared by Margaret Benyon for the VisCom 71 Congress. Use has also been made of some extracts from an introductory note by Jonathan Benthall for a recent exhibition of Miss Benyon's work.
6 Some research into sign perception Ryszard Otreba Doctor Ryszard Otreba's article is a summary of some research that he carried out in connection with a recently published paper entitled 'variability of sign perception in horizontal motion'. Doctor Otreba is at present working at the Crakow Academy of Fine Art.
7 The book in an audio-visual world F Borden MaceF Borden Mace takes a cool look at the so-called 'communications explosion'. Mr Mace is Communications Consultant to Doubleday Multimedia (USA). 8 Some views on VisCom 71The Austrian President, Franz Jonas, delivering an address of welcome to the delegates attending the VisCom 71 Congress held in the Hofburg Congress Centre, Vienna. Photograph by Foro Schikola. 9 Audio-visual hardware
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2 Speakers at VISCOM ‘71
3 ICOGRADA Congress and exhibition The diagram below tries to clarify the content of the VisCom 71 Congress on the Learning Industry. The difference between VisCom 71 and other conferences on visual communication is that it is attempting to combine a number of disciplines which are affecting the industry.
In this way it is hoped that the problems will be viewed in their totality and so reveal the relationships between the various activities and their interdependence.
4 Computer animated movies KC Knowlton The illustration shows a sequence of six stills that were produced using the author's new computer language, EXPLØR. EXPLØR is designed for explicit patterns, logical operations, and randomness, and the author will discuss its applications during his speech at VisCom 71.
5 Differentiating images ltsuo Sakane ltsuo Sakane's article was originally published in 'Graphic Design' (Japan) edited by Masuru Katsumie.
6 Symbol design in the GDR Gerard Voight Gerard Voigt is a graphic designer and the present Deputy President of the Verbund Bildende Kuenstler of the German Democratic Republic. He was a winner of the Trade Prize from the District of Halle and a winner of the Art Prize from the city of Halle.
7 Two Belgian designers Jacques Richez, Michel Olyff
8 Armin HofmannArmin Hofmann is the first Honorary Fellow of the Society of Typographical Designers. An exhibition at the Central School of Art of his work was opened in January by KeithMurgatroyd, President of the Society which sponsored the show.
10Design and science by Paul KennyPaul Kenny was, until recently, teaching at the Faculty of Creative Arts at San Francisco State College. His article is devoted to the searchfor a possible new visual language utilising the research of human physiology and experiments in visual communication.
12ICOGRADA exhibition in PragueTop photograph shows, from left to right, John Halas, Marijke Singer and Stanislav Kovar at the 'Pro Bono Publico' Exhibition in Prague. Photograph by Martin Pycha. Photographs below show a selection of some of the posters which were included in the Exhibition.
13 Audio-visual hardware The possibilities in new technical developments of masscommunication can always be of interest to graphic designers. As the introduction of off-set litho printing has extended the powers of designers whose work is in printing, so also the development of new machines and facilities for displaying moving pictures can extend the powers of designers who are moving into the audio-visual field.
On this page we show some items of hardware which may help to make audio-visual communication easier in the classroom and in every situation where good audio-visual design is needed.
14 Definition of Cybernetic Nicolas Scheffer
15Design organisations in Sweden Claes Folkeson